On this page:
read
read-syntax
read/  recursive
read-syntax/  recursive
read-language
read-case-sensitive
read-square-bracket-as-paren
read-curly-brace-as-paren
read-square-bracket-with-tag
read-curly-brace-with-tag
read-accept-box
read-accept-compiled
read-accept-bar-quote
read-accept-graph
read-syntax-accept-graph
read-decimal-as-inexact
read-single-flonum
read-accept-dot
read-accept-infix-dot
read-cdot
read-accept-quasiquote
read-accept-reader
read-accept-lang
current-readtable
call-with-default-reading-parameterization
current-reader-guard
read-on-demand-source
port-read-handler

13.4 Reading

procedure

(read [in])  any

  in : input-port? = (current-input-port)
Reads and returns a single datum from in. If in has a handler associated to it via port-read-handler, then the handler is called. Otherwise, the default reader is used, as parameterized by the current-readtable parameter, as well as many other parameters.

See The Reader for information on the default reader and Reading via an Extension for the protocol of read.

procedure

(read-syntax [source-name in])  (or/c syntax? eof-object?)

  source-name : any/c = (object-name (current-input-port))
  in : input-port? = (current-input-port)
Like read, but produces a syntax object with source-location information. The source-name is used as the source field of the syntax object; it can be an arbitrary value, but it should generally be a path for the source file.

See The Reader for information on the default reader in read-syntax mode and Reading via an Extension for the protocol of read-syntax.

+See also Syntax Objects in The Racket Guide.

procedure

(read/recursive [in start readtable graph?])  any

  in : input-port? = (current-input-port)
  start : (or/c char? #f) = #f
  readtable : (or/c readtable? #f) = (current-readtable)
  graph? : any/c = #t
Similar to calling read, but normally used during the dynamic extent of read within a reader-extension procedure (see Reader-Extension Procedures). The main effect of using read/recursive instead of read is that graph-structure annotations (see Reading Graph Structure) in the nested read are considered part of the overall read, at least when the graph? argument is true; since the result is wrapped in a placeholder, however, it is not directly inspectable.

If start is provided and not #f, it is effectively prefixed to the beginning of in’s stream for the read. (To prefix multiple characters, use input-port-append.)

The readtable argument is used for top-level parsing to satisfy the read request, including various delimiters of a built-in top-level form (such as parentheses and . for reading a hash table); recursive parsing within the read (e.g., to read the elements of a list) instead uses the current readtable as determined by the current-readtable parameter. A reader macro might call read/recursive with a character and readtable to effectively invoke the readtable’s behavior for the character. If readtable is #f, the default readtable is used for top-level parsing.

When graph? is #f, graph structure annotations in the read datum are local to the datum.

When called within the dynamic extent of read, the read/recursive procedure can produce a special-comment value (see Special Comments) when the input stream’s first non-whitespace content parses as a comment.

See Readtables for an extended example that uses read/recursive.

Changed in version 6.2 of package base: Adjusted use of readtable to more consistently apply to the delimiters of a built-in form.

procedure

(read-syntax/recursive [source-name    
  in    
  start    
  readtable    
  graph?])  any
  source-name : any/c = (object-name in)
  in : input-port? = (current-input-port)
  start : (or/c char? #f) = #f
  readtable : (or/c readtable? #f) = (current-readtable)
  graph? : any/c = #t
Analogous to calling read/recursive, but the resulting value encapsulates S-expression structure with source-location information. As with read/recursive, when read-syntax/recursive is used within the dynamic extent of read-syntax, the result from read-syntax/recursive is either a special-comment value, end-of-file, or opaque graph-structure placeholder (not a syntax object). The placeholder can be embedded in an S-expression or syntax object returned by a reader macro, etc., and it will be replaced with the actual syntax object before the outermost read-syntax returns.

Using read/recursive within the dynamic extent of read-syntax does not allow graph structure for reading to be included in the outer read-syntax parsing, and neither does using read-syntax/recursive within the dynamic extent of read. In those cases, read/recursive and read-syntax/recursive produce results like read and read-syntax, except that a special-comment value is returned when the input stream starts with a comment (after whitespace).

See Readtables for an extended example that uses read-syntax/recursive.

Changed in version 6.2 of package base: Adjusted use of readtable in the same way as for read/recursive.

procedure

(read-language [in fail-thunk])

  (or/c (any/c any/c . -> . any) #f)
  in : input-port? = (current-input-port)
  fail-thunk : (-> any) = (lambda () (error ...))
Reads from in in the same way as read, but stopping as soon as a reader language (or its absence) is determined, and using the current namespace to load a reader module instead of its root namespace (if those are different).

A reader language is specified by #lang or #! (see Reading via an Extension) at the beginning of the input, though possibly after comment forms. The default readtable is used by read-language (instead of the value of current-readtable), and #reader forms (which might produce comments) are not allowed before #lang or #!.

+See also Source-Handling Configuration in The Racket Guide.

When it finds a #lang or #! specification, instead of dispatching to a read or read-syntax function as read and read-syntax do, read-language dispatches to the get-info function (if any) exported by the same module. The arguments to get-info are the same as for read as described in Reading via an Extension. The result of the get-info function is the result of read-language if it is a function of two arguments; if get-info produces any other kind of result, the exn:fail:contract exception is raised. If no get-info function is exported, read-language returns #f.

The function produced by get-info reflects information about the expected syntax of the input stream. The first argument to the function serves as a key on such information; acceptable keys and the interpretation of results is up to external tools, such as DrRacket (see the DrRacket documentation). If no information is available for a given key, the result should be the second argument.

Examples:
> (define scribble-manual-info
    (read-language (open-input-string "#lang scribble/manual")))
> (scribble-manual-info 'color-lexer #f)

#<procedure:scribble-inside-lexer>

> (scribble-manual-info 'something-else #f)

#f

The get-info function itself is applied to five arguments: the input port being read, the module path from which the get-info function was extracted, and the source line (positive exact integer or #f), column (non-negative exact integer or #f), and position (positive exact integer or #f) of the start of the #lang or #! form. The get-info function may further read from the given input port to determine its result, but it should read no further than necessary. The get-info function should not read from the port after returning a function.

If in starts with a reader language specification but the relevant module does not export get-info (but perhaps does export read and read-syntax), then the result of read-language is #f.

If in has a #lang or #! specification, but parsing and resolving the specification raises an exception, the exception is propagated by read-language. Having at least #l or #! (after comments and whitespace) counts as starting a #lang or #! specification.

If in does not specify a reader language with #lang or #!, then fail-thunk is called. The default fail-thunk raises exn:fail:read or exn:fail:read:eof.

parameter

(read-case-sensitive)  boolean?

(read-case-sensitive on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing and printing of symbols. When this parameter’s value is #f, the reader case-folds symbols (e.g., producing 'hi when the input is any one of hi, Hi, HI, or hI). The parameter also affects the way that write prints symbols containing uppercase characters; if the parameter’s value is #f, then symbols are printed with uppercase characters quoted by a \ or |. The parameter’s value is overridden by quoting \ or | vertical-bar quotes and the #cs and #ci prefixes; see Reading Symbols for more information. While a module is loaded, the parameter is set to #t (see current-load).

A parameter that controls whether [ and ] are treated as parentheses. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

A parameter that controls whether { and } are treated as parentheses. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

A parameter that controls whether [ and ] are treated as parentheses, but the resulting list tagged with #%brackets. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

Added in version 6.3.0.5 of package base.

A parameter that controls whether { and } are treated as parentheses, but the resulting list tagged with #%braces. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

Added in version 6.3.0.5 of package base.

parameter

(read-accept-box)  boolean?

(read-accept-box on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing #& input. See Reading Boxes for more information.

parameter

(read-accept-compiled)  boolean?

(read-accept-compiled on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing #~ compiled input. See The Reader and current-compile for more information.

parameter

(read-accept-bar-quote)  boolean?

(read-accept-bar-quote on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing and printing of | in symbols. See Reading Symbols and The Printer for more information.

parameter

(read-accept-graph)  boolean?

(read-accept-graph on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter value that controls parsing input with sharing in read mode. See Reading Graph Structure for more information.

parameter

(read-syntax-accept-graph)  boolean?

(read-syntax-accept-graph on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter value that controls parsing input with sharing in read-syntax mode. See Reading Graph Structure for more information.

Added in version 8.4.0.8 of package base.

parameter

(read-decimal-as-inexact)  boolean?

(read-decimal-as-inexact on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing input numbers with a decimal point or exponent (but no explicit exactness tag). See Reading Numbers for more information.

parameter

(read-single-flonum)  boolean?

(read-single-flonum on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing input numbers that have a f, F, s, or S precision character. See Reading Numbers for more information.

Added in version 7.3.0.5 of package base.

parameter

(read-accept-dot)  boolean?

(read-accept-dot on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing input with a dot, which is normally used for literal cons cells. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

parameter

(read-accept-infix-dot)  boolean?

(read-accept-infix-dot on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing input with two dots to trigger infix conversion. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

parameter

(read-cdot)  boolean?

(read-cdot on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing input with a dot, in a C structure accessor style. See Reading with C-style Infix-Dot Notation for more information.

Added in version 6.3.0.5 of package base.

parameter

(read-accept-quasiquote)  boolean?

(read-accept-quasiquote on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls parsing input with ` or , which is normally used for quasiquote, unquote, and unquote-splicing abbreviations. See Reading Quotes for more information.

parameter

(read-accept-reader)  boolean?

(read-accept-reader on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that controls whether #reader, #lang, or #! are allowed for selecting a parser. See Reading via an Extension for more information.

parameter

(read-accept-lang)  boolean?

(read-accept-lang on?)  void?
  on? : any/c
A parameter that (along with read-accept-reader) controls whether #lang and #! are allowed for selecting a parser. See Reading via an Extension for more information.

parameter

(current-readtable)  (or/c readtable? #f)

(current-readtable readtable)  void?
  readtable : (or/c readtable? #f)
A parameter whose value determines a readtable that adjusts the parsing of S-expression input, where #f implies the default behavior. See Readtables for more information.

procedure

(call-with-default-reading-parameterization thunk)  any

  thunk : (-> any)
Calls thunk in tail position of a parameterize to set all reader parameters above to their default values.

Using the default parameter values ensures consistency, and it also provides safety when reading from untrusted sources, since the default values disable evaluation of arbitrary code via #lang or #reader.

parameter

(current-reader-guard)  (any/c . -> . any)

(current-reader-guard proc)  void?
  proc : (any/c . -> . any)
A parameter whose value converts or rejects (by raising an exception) a module-path datum following #reader. See Reading via an Extension for more information.

parameter

(read-on-demand-source)

  (or/c #f #t (and/c path? complete-path?))
(read-on-demand-source mode)  void?
  mode : (or/c #f #t (and/c path? complete-path?))
A parameter that enables lazy parsing of compiled code, so that closure bodies and syntax objects are extracted (and validated) from marshaled compiled code on demand. Normally, this parameter is set by the default load handler when load-on-demand-enabled is #t.

A #f value for read-on-demand-source disables lazy parsing of compiled code. A #t value enables lazy parsing. A path value furthers enable lazy retrieval from disk—instead of keeping unparsed compiled code in memory—when the PLT_DELAY_FROM_ZO environment variable is set (to any value) on start-up.

If the file at mode as a path changes before the delayed code is parsed when lazy retrieval from disk is enabled, then the on-demand parse most likely will encounter garbage, leading to an exception.

procedure

(port-read-handler in)  
(case->
 (input-port? . -> . any)
 (input-port?  any/c . -> . any))
  in : input-port?
(port-read-handler in proc)  void?
  in : input-port?
  proc : 
(case->
 (input-port? . -> . any)
 (input-port? any/c . -> . any))
Gets or sets the port read handler for in. The handler called to read from the port when the built-in read or read-syntax procedure is applied to the port. (The port read handler is not used for read/recursive or read-syntax/recursive.)

A port read handler is applied to either one argument or two arguments:

The default port read handler reads standard Racket expressions with Racket’s built-in parser (see The Reader). It handles a special result from a custom input port (see make-custom-input-port) by treating it as a single expression, except that special-comment values (see Special Comments) are treated as whitespace.

The default port read handler itself can be customized through a readtable; see Readtables for more information.