On this page:
impersonator?
chaperone?
impersonator-of?
chaperone-of?
impersonator-ephemeron
procedure-impersonator*?
14.5.1 Impersonator Constructors
impersonate-procedure
impersonate-procedure*
impersonate-struct
impersonate-vector
impersonate-vector*
impersonate-box
impersonate-hash
impersonate-channel
impersonate-prompt-tag
impersonate-continuation-mark-key
prop:  impersonator-of
prop:  authentic
14.5.2 Chaperone Constructors
chaperone-procedure
chaperone-procedure*
chaperone-struct
chaperone-vector
chaperone-vector*
chaperone-box
chaperone-hash
chaperone-struct-type
chaperone-evt
chaperone-channel
chaperone-prompt-tag
chaperone-continuation-mark-key
14.5.3 Impersonator Properties
make-impersonator-property
impersonator-property?
impersonator-property-accessor-procedure?
impersonator-prop:  application-mark

14.5 Impersonators and Chaperones🔗

An impersonator is a wrapper for a value where the wrapper redirects some of the value’s operations. Impersonators apply only to procedures, structures for which an accessor or mutator is available, structure types, hash tables, vectors, boxes, channels, and prompt tags. An impersonator is equal? to the original value, but not eq? to the original value.

A chaperone is a kind of impersonator whose refinement of a value’s operation is restricted to side effects (including, in particular, raising an exception) or chaperoning values supplied to or produced by the operation. For example, a vector chaperone can redirect vector-ref to raise an exception if the accessed vector slot contains a string, or it can cause the result of vector-ref to be a chaperoned variant of the value that is in the accessed vector slot, but it cannot redirect vector-ref to produce a value that is arbitrarily different from the value in the vector slot.

A non-chaperone impersonator, in contrast, can refine an operation to swap one value for any other. An impersonator cannot be applied to an immutable value or refine the access to an immutable field in an instance of a structure type, since arbitrary redirection of an operation amounts to mutation of the impersonated value.

Beware that each of the following operations can be redirected to an arbitrary procedure through an impersonator on the operation’s argument—assuming that the operation is available to the creator of the impersonator:

Derived operations, such as printing a value, can be redirected through impersonators due to their use of accessor functions. The equal?, equal-hash-code, and equal-secondary-hash-code operations, in contrast, may bypass impersonators (but they are not obliged to).

In addition to redirecting operations that work on a value, a impersonator can include impersonator properties for an impersonated value. An impersonator property is similar to a structure type property, but it applies to impersonators instead of structure types and their instances.

procedure

(impersonator? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t if v is an impersonator created by procedures like impersonate-procedure or impersonate-struct, #f otherwise.

Programs and libraries generally should avoid impersonator? and treat impersonators the same as non-impersonator values. In rare cases, impersonator? may be needed to guard against redirection by an impersonator of an operation to an arbitrary procedure.

A limitation of impersonator? is that it does not recognize an impersonator that is created by instantiating a structure type with the prop:impersonator-of property. The limitation reflects how those impersonators cannot redirect structure access and mutation operations to arbitrary procedures.

procedure

(chaperone? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t if v is a chaperone, #f otherwise.

Programs and libraries generally should avoid chaperone? for the same reason that they should avoid impersonator?. A true value for chaperone? implies a true value of impersonator?.

procedure

(impersonator-of? v1 v2)  boolean?

  v1 : any/c
  v2 : any/c
Indicates whether v1 can be considered equivalent modulo impersonators to v2.

Any two values that are eq? to one another are also impersonator-of?. For values that include no impersonators, v1 and v2 are considered impersonators of each other if they are equal?.

If at least one of v1 or v2 is an impersonator:
  • If v1 impersonates v1* then (impersonator-of? v1 v2) is #t if and only if (impersonator-of? v1* v2) is #t.

  • If v2 is a non-interposing impersonator that impersonates v2*, i.e., all of its interposition procedures are #f, then (impersonator-of? v1 v2) is #t if and only if (impersonator-of? v1 v2*) is #t.

  • When v2 is an impersonator constructed with at least one non-#f interposition procedure, but v1 is not an impersonator then (impersonator-of? v1 v2) is #f.

Otherwise, if neither v1 or v2 is an impersonator, but either of them contains an impersonator as a subpart (e.g., v1 is a list with an impersonator as one of its elements), then (impersonator-of? v1 v2) proceeds by comparing v1 and v2 recursively (as with equal?), returning true if all subparts are impersonator-of?.

Examples:
> (impersonator-of? (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x))
                    add1)

#t

> (impersonator-of? (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x))
                    sub1)

#f

> (impersonator-of? (impersonate-procedure
                      (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x)) (λ (x) x))
                    add1)

#t

> (impersonator-of? (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x))
                    (impersonate-procedure add1 #f))

#t

> (impersonator-of? (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x))
                    (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x)))

#f

> (impersonator-of? (list 1 2)
                    (list 1 2))

#t

> (impersonator-of? (list (impersonate-procedure add1 (λ (x) x)) sub1)
                    (list add1 sub1))

#t

procedure

(chaperone-of? v1 v2)  boolean?

  v1 : any/c
  v2 : any/c
Indicates whether v1 can be considered equivalent modulo chaperones to v2.

For values that include no chaperones or other impersonators, v1 and v2 can be considered chaperones of each other if they are equal-always?, which requires that they are equal? except that corresponding mutable vectors, boxes, hash tables, strings, byte strings, mutable pairs, and mutable structures within v1 and v2 must be eq?.

Otherwise, chaperones and other impersonators within v2 must be intact within v1 analogous to way that impersonator-of? requires that impersonators are preserved. Furthermore, v1 must not have any non-chaperone impersonators whose corresponding value in v2 is not the same impersonator. Note that chaperone-of? implies impersonator-of?, but not vice-versa.

procedure

(impersonator-ephemeron v)  ephemeron?

  v : any/c
Produces an ephemeron that can be used to connect the reachability of v (in the sense of garbage collection; see Garbage Collection) with the reachability of any value for which v is an impersonator. That is, the value v will be considered reachable as long as the result ephemeron is reachable in addition to any value that v impersonates (including itself).

In the terminology of ephemerons, v is the value of the ephemeron and all of the values that v impersonates are keys.

procedure

(procedure-impersonator*? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t for any procedure impersonator that either was produced by impersonate-procedure* or chaperone-procedure*, or is an impersonator/chaperone of a value that was created with impersonate-procedure* or chaperone-procedure* (possibly transitively).

14.5.1 Impersonator Constructors🔗

procedure

(impersonate-procedure proc 
  wrapper-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c procedure? impersonator?)
  proc : procedure?
  wrapper-proc : (or/c procedure? #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator procedure that has the same arity, name, and other attributes as proc. When the impersonator procedure is applied, the arguments are first passed to wrapper-proc (when it is not #f), and then the results from wrapper-proc are passed to proc. The wrapper-proc can also supply a procedure that processes the results of proc.

The arity of wrapper-proc must include the arity of proc. The allowed keyword arguments of wrapper-proc must be a superset of the allowed keywords of proc. The required keyword arguments of wrapper-proc must be a subset of the required keywords of proc.

For applications without keywords, the result of wrapper-proc must be at least the same number of values as supplied to it. Additional results can be supplied—before the values that correspond to the supplied values—in the following pattern:

If result-wrapper-proc is produced, it must be a procedure that accepts as many results as produced by proc; it must return the same number of results. If result-wrapper-proc is not supplied, then proc is called in tail position with respect to the call to the impersonator.

For applications that include keyword arguments, wrapper-proc must return an additional value before any other values but after result-wrapper-proc and 'mark key val sequences (if any). The additional value must be a list of replacements for the keyword arguments that were supplied to the impersonator (i.e., not counting optional arguments that were not supplied). The arguments must be ordered according to the sorted order of the supplied arguments’ keywords.

If wrapper-proc is #f, then applying the resulting impersonator is the same as applying proc. If wrapper-proc is #f and no prop is provided, then proc is returned and is not impersonated.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-procedure must be even) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of proc.

If any prop is impersonator-prop:application-mark and if the associated prop-val is a pair, then the call to proc is wrapped with with-continuation-mark using (car prop-val) as the mark key and (cdr prop-val) as the mark value. In addition, if the immediate continuation frame of the call to the impersonated procedure includes a value for (car prop-val)that is, if call-with-immediate-continuation-mark would produce a value for (car prop-val) in the call’s continuation—then the value is also installed as an immediate value for (car prop-val) as a mark during the call to wrapper-proc (which allows tail-calls of impersonators with respect to wrapping impersonators to be detected within wrapper-proc).

Changed in version 6.3.0.5 of package base: Added support for 'mark key val results from wrapper-proc.

Examples:
> (define (add15 x) (+ x 15))
> (define add15+print
    (impersonate-procedure add15
                           (λ (x)
                             (printf "called with ~s\n" x)
                             (values (λ (res)
                                       (printf "returned ~s\n" res)
                                       res)
                                     x))))
> (add15 27)

42

> (add15+print 27)

called with 27

returned 42

42

> (define-values (imp-prop:p1 imp-prop:p1? imp-prop:p1-get)
    (make-impersonator-property 'imp-prop:p1))
> (define-values (imp-prop:p2 imp-prop:p2? imp-prop:p2-get)
    (make-impersonator-property 'imp-prop:p2))
> (define add15.2 (impersonate-procedure add15 #f imp-prop:p1 11))
> (add15.2 2)

17

> (imp-prop:p1? add15.2)

#t

> (imp-prop:p1-get add15.2)

11

> (imp-prop:p2? add15.2)

#f

> (define add15.3 (impersonate-procedure add15.2 #f imp-prop:p2 13))
> (add15.3 3)

18

> (imp-prop:p1? add15.3)

#t

> (imp-prop:p1-get add15.3)

11

> (imp-prop:p2? add15.3)

#t

> (imp-prop:p2-get add15.3)

13

> (define add15.4 (impersonate-procedure add15.3 #f imp-prop:p1 101))
> (add15.4 4)

19

> (imp-prop:p1? add15.4)

#t

> (imp-prop:p1-get add15.4)

101

> (imp-prop:p2? add15.4)

#t

> (imp-prop:p2-get add15.4)

13

procedure

(impersonate-procedure* proc 
  wrapper-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c procedure? impersonator?)
  proc : procedure?
  wrapper-proc : (or/c procedure? #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-procedure, except that wrapper-proc receives an additional argument before all other arguments. The additional argument is the procedure orig-proc that was originally applied.

If the result of impersonate-procedure* is applied directly, then orig-proc is that result. If the result is further impersonated before being applied, however, orig-proc is the further impersonator.

An orig-proc argument might be useful so that wrapper-proc can extract impersonator properties that are overridden by further impersonators, for example.

Added in version 6.1.1.5 of package base.

procedure

(impersonate-struct v    
  [struct-type]    
  orig-proc    
  redirect-proc ...    
  ...    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  any/c
  v : any/c
  struct-type : struct-type? = unspecified
  orig-proc : 
(or/c struct-accessor-procedure?
      struct-mutator-procedure?
      struct-type-property-accessor-procedure?)
  redirect-proc : (or/c procedure? #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of v, which redirects certain operations on the impersonated value. The orig-procs indicate the operations to redirect, and the corresponding redirect-procs supply the redirections. The optional struct-type argument, when provided, acts as a witness for the representation of v, which must be an instance of struct-type.

The protocol for a redirect-proc depends on the corresponding orig-proc, where self refers to the value to which orig-proc is originally applied:

When a redirect-proc is #f, the corresponding orig-proc is unaffected. Supplying #f for a redirect-proc is useful to allow its orig-proc to act as a “witness” of v’s representation and enable the addition of props.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-struct must be even if struct-type is provided, odd otherwise) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of v.

Each orig-proc must indicate a distinct operation. If no struct-type and no orig-procs are supplied, then no props must be supplied. If orig-procs are supplied only with #f redirect-procs and no props are supplied, then v is returned and is not impersonated.

If any orig-proc is itself an impersonator, then a use of the accessor or mutator that orig-proc impersonates is redirected for the resulting impersonated structure to use orig-proc on v before redirect-proc (in the case of accessor) or after redirect-proc (in the case of a mutator).

Changed in version 6.1.1.2 of package base: Changed first argument to an accessor or mutator redirect-proc from v to self.
Changed in version 6.1.1.8: Added optional struct-type argument.

procedure

(impersonate-vector vec 
  ref-proc 
  set-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c vector? impersonator?)
  vec : (and/c vector? (not/c immutable?))
  ref-proc : (or/c (vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  set-proc : (or/c (vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of vec, which redirects the vector-ref and vector-set! operations.

The ref-proc and set-proc arguments must either both be procedures or both be #f. If they are #f then impersonate-vector does not interpose on vec, but still allows attaching impersonator properties.

If ref-proc is a procedure it must accept vec, an index passed to vector-ref, and the value that vector-ref on vec produces for the given index; it must produce a replacement for the value, which is the result of vector-ref on the impersonator.

If set-proc is a procedure it must accept vec, an index passed to vector-set!, and the value passed to vector-set!; it must produce a replacement for the value, which is used with vector-set! on the original vec to install the value.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-vector must be odd) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of vec.

Changed in version 6.9.0.2 of package base: Added non-interposing vector impersonators.

procedure

(impersonate-vector* vec 
  ref-proc 
  set-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c vector? impersonator?)
  vec : (and/c vector? (not/c immutable?))
  ref-proc : (or/c (vector? vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  set-proc : (or/c (vector? vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-vector, except that ref-proc and set-proc each receive an additional vector as argument before other arguments. The additional argument is the original impersonated vector, access to which triggered interposition in the first place.

The additional vector argument might be useful so that ref-proc or set-proc can extract impersonator properties that are overridden by further impersonators, for example.

Added in version 6.9.0.2 of package base.

procedure

(impersonate-box box    
  unbox-proc    
  set-proc    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c box? impersonator?)
  box : (and/c box? (not/c immutable?))
  unbox-proc : (box? any/c . -> . any/c)
  set-proc : (box? any/c . -> . any/c)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of box, which redirects the unbox and set-box! operations.

The unbox-proc must accept box and the value that unbox produces on box; it must produce a replacement value, which is the result of unbox on the impersonator.

The set-proc must accept box and the value passed to set-box!; it must produce a replacement value, which is used with set-box! on the original box to install the value.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-box must be odd) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of box.

procedure

(impersonate-hash hash    
  ref-proc    
  set-proc    
  remove-proc    
  key-proc    
  [clear-proc    
  equal-key-proc]    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c hash? impersonator?)
  hash : (and/c hash? (not/c immutable?))
  ref-proc : 
(hash? any/c . -> . (values
                     any/c
                     (hash? any/c any/c . -> . any/c)))
  set-proc : (hash? any/c any/c . -> . (values any/c any/c))
  remove-proc : (hash? any/c . -> . any/c)
  key-proc : (hash? any/c . -> . any/c)
  clear-proc : (or/c #f (hash? . -> . any)) = #f
  equal-key-proc : (or/c #f (hash? any/c . -> . any/c)) = #f
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of hash, which redirects the hash-ref, hash-set! or hash-set (as applicable), hash-remove or hash-remove! (as applicable), hash-clear or hash-clear! (as applicable and if clear-proc is not #f) operations. When hash-set, hash-remove or hash-clear is used on an impersonator of a hash table, the result is an impersonator with the same redirecting procedures. In addition, operations like hash-iterate-key or hash-map, which extract keys from the table, use key-proc to replace keys extracted from the table. Operations like hash-iterate-value or hash-values implicitly use hash-ref and therefore redirect through ref-proc. The hash-ref-key operation uses both ref-proc and key-proc, the former to lookup the requested key and the latter to extract it.

The ref-proc must accept hash and a key passed to hash-ref. It must return a replacement key as well as a procedure. The returned procedure is called only if the returned key is found in hash via hash-ref, in which case the procedure is called with hash, the previously returned key, and the found value. The returned procedure must itself return a replacement for the found value. The returned procedure is ignored by hash-ref-key.

The set-proc must accept hash, a key passed to hash-set! or hash-set, and the value passed to hash-set! or hash-set; it must produce two values: a replacement for the key and a replacement for the value. The returned key and value are used with hash-set! or hash-set on the original hash to install the value.

The remove-proc must accept hash and a key passed to hash-remove! or hash-remove; it must produce a replacement for the key, which is used with hash-remove! or hash-remove on the original hash to remove any mapping using the (impersonator-replaced) key.

The key-proc must accept hash and a key that has been extracted from hash (by hash-ref-key, hash-iterate-key, or other operations that use hash-iterate-key internally); it must produce a replacement for the key, which is then reported as a key extracted from the table.

If clear-proc is not #f, it must accept hash as an argument, and its result is ignored. The fact that clear-proc returns (as opposed to raising an exception or otherwise escaping) grants the capability to remove all keys from hash. If clear-proc is #f, then hash-clear or hash-clear! on the impersonator is implemented using hash-iterate-key and hash-remove or hash-remove!.

If equal-key-proc is not #f, it effectively interposes on calls to equal?, equal-hash-code, and equal-secondary-hash-code for the keys of hash. The equal-key-proc must accept as its arguments hash and a key that is either mapped by hash or passed to hash-ref, etc., where the latter has potentially been adjusted by the corresponding ref-proc, etc. The result is a value that is passed to equal?, equal-hash-code, and equal-secondary-hash-code as needed to hash and compare keys. In the case of hash-set! or hash-set, the key that is passed to equal-key-proc is the one stored in the hash table for future lookup.

The hash-iterate-value, hash-map, or hash-for-each functions use a combination of hash-iterate-key and hash-ref. If a key produced by key-proc does not yield a value through hash-ref, then the exn:fail:contract exception is raised.

Pairs of prop and prop-val add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of hash.

In the case of an immutable hash table, two impersonated hash tables count as “the same value” (for purposes of impersonator-of?) when their redirection procedures were originally attached to a hash table by the same call to impersonate-hash or chaperone-hash (and potentially propagated by hash-set, hash-remove, or hash-clear), as long as the content of the first hash table is impersonator-of? of the second hash table.

Changed in version 6.3.0.11 of package base: Added the equal-key-proc argument.

procedure

(impersonate-channel channel 
  get-proc 
  put-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c channel? impersonator?)
  channel : channel?
  get-proc : (channel? . -> . (values channel? (any/c . -> . any/c)))
  put-proc : (channel? any/c . -> . any/c)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of channel, which redirects the channel-get and channel-put operations.

The get-proc generator is called on channel-get or any other operation that fetches results from the channel (such as a sync on the channel). The get-proc must return two values: a channel that is an impersonator of channel, and a procedure that is used to check the channel’s contents.

The put-proc must accept channel and the value passed to channel-put; it must produce a replacement value, which is used with channel-put on the original channel to send the value over the channel.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-channel must be odd) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of channel.

procedure

(impersonate-prompt-tag prompt-tag 
  handle-proc 
  abort-proc 
  [cc-guard-proc 
  callcc-impersonate-proc] 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c continuation-prompt-tag? impersonator?)
  prompt-tag : continuation-prompt-tag?
  handle-proc : procedure?
  abort-proc : procedure?
  cc-guard-proc : procedure? = values
  callcc-impersonate-proc : (procedure? . -> . procedure?)
   = (lambda (p) p)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of prompt-tag, which redirects the call-with-continuation-prompt and abort-current-continuation operations.

The handle-proc must accept the values that the handler of a continuation prompt would take and it must produce replacement values, which will be passed to the handler.

The abort-proc must accept the values passed to abort-current-continuation; it must produce replacement values, which are aborted to the appropriate prompt.

The cc-guard-proc must accept the values produced by call-with-continuation-prompt in the case that a non-composable continuation is applied to replace the continuation that is delimited by the prompt, but only if abort-current-continuation is not later used to abort the continuation delimited by the prompt (in which case abort-proc is used).

The callcc-impersonate-proc must accept a procedure that guards the result of a continuation captured by call-with-current-continuation with the impersonated prompt tag. The callcc-impersonate-proc is applied (under a continuation barrier) when the captured continuation is applied to refine a guard function (initially values) that is specific to the delimiting prompt; this prompt-specific guard is ultimately composed with any cc-guard-proc that is in effect at the delimiting prompt, and it is not used in the same case that a cc-guard-proc is not used (i.e., when abort-current-continuation is used to abort to the prompt). In the special case where the delimiting prompt at application time is a thread’s built-in initial prompt, callcc-impersonate-proc is ignored (partly on the grounds that the initial prompt’s result is ignored).

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-prompt-tag must be odd) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of prompt-tag.

Examples:
> (define tag
    (impersonate-prompt-tag
     (make-continuation-prompt-tag)
     (lambda (n) (* n 2))
     (lambda (n) (+ n 1))))
> (call-with-continuation-prompt
    (lambda ()
      (abort-current-continuation tag 5))
    tag
    (lambda (n) n))

12

procedure

(impersonate-continuation-mark-key key 
  get-proc 
  set-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c continuation-mark? impersonator?)
  key : continuation-mark-key?
  get-proc : procedure?
  set-proc : procedure?
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns an impersonator of key, which redirects with-continuation-mark and continuation mark accessors such as continuation-mark-set->list.

The get-proc must accept the value attached to a continuation mark and it must produce a replacement value, which will be returned by the continuation mark accessor.

The set-proc must accept a value passed to with-continuation-mark; it must produce a replacement value, which is attached to the continuation frame.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to impersonate-continuation-mark-key must be odd) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of key.

Examples:
> (define mark-key
    (impersonate-continuation-mark-key
     (make-continuation-mark-key)
     (lambda (l) (map char-upcase l))
     (lambda (s) (string->list s))))
> (with-continuation-mark mark-key "quiche"
    (continuation-mark-set-first
     (current-continuation-marks)
     mark-key))

'(#\Q #\U #\I #\C #\H #\E)

A structure type property (see Structure Type Properties) that supplies a procedure for extracting an impersonated value from a structure that represents an impersonator. The property is used for impersonator-of? as well as equal?.

The property value must be a procedure of one argument, which is a structure whose structure type has the property. The result can be #f to indicate the structure does not represent an impersonator, otherwise the result is a value for which the original structure is an impersonator (so the original structure is an impersonator-of? and equal? to the result value). The result value must have the same prop:impersonator-of and prop:equal+hash property values as the original structure, if any, and the property values must be inherited from the same structure type (which ensures some consistency between impersonator-of? and equal?).

Impersonator property predicates and accessors applied to a structure with the prop:impersonator-of property first check for the property on the immediate structure, and if it is not found, the value produced by the prop:impersonator-of procedure is checked (recursively).

Changed in version 6.1.1.8 of package base: Made impersonator property predicates and accessors sensitive to prop:impersonator-of.

A structure type property that declares a structure type as authentic. The value associated with the property is ignored; the presence of the property itself makes the structure type authentic.

Instances of an authentic structure type cannot be impersonated via impersonate-struct or chaperoned via chaperone-struct. As a consequence, an instance of an authentic structure type can be given a contract (see struct/c) only if it is a flat contract.

Declaring a structure type as authentic can prevent unwanted structure impersonation, but exposed structure types normally should support impersonators or chaperones to facilitate contracts. Declaring a structure type as authentic can also slightly improve the performance of structure predicates, selectors, and mutators, which can be appropriate for data structures that are private and frequently used within a library.

Added in version 6.9.0.4 of package base.

14.5.2 Chaperone Constructors🔗

procedure

(chaperone-procedure proc 
  wrapper-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c procedure? chaperone?)
  proc : procedure?
  wrapper-proc : (or/c procedure? #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-procedure, but for each value supplied to wrapper-proc, the corresponding result must be the same or a chaperone of (in the sense of chaperone-of?) the supplied value. The additional result, if any, that precedes the chaperoned values must be a procedure that accepts as many results as produced by proc; it must return the same number of results, each of which is the same or a chaperone of the corresponding original result.

For applications that include keyword arguments, wrapper-proc must return an additional value before any other values but after the result-chaperoning procedure (if any). The additional value must be a list of chaperones of the keyword arguments that were supplied to the chaperone procedure (i.e., not counting optional arguments that were not supplied). The arguments must be ordered according to the sorted order of the supplied arguments’ keywords.

procedure

(chaperone-procedure* proc 
  wrapper-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c procedure? chaperone?)
  proc : procedure?
  wrapper-proc : (or/c procedure? #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like chaperone-procedure, but wrapper-proc receives an extra argument as with impersonate-procedure*.

Added in version 6.1.1.5 of package base.

procedure

(chaperone-struct v    
  [struct-type]    
  orig-proc    
  redirect-proc ...    
  ...    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  any/c
  v : any/c
  struct-type : struct-type? = unspecified
  orig-proc : 
(or/c struct-accessor-procedure?
      struct-mutator-procedure?
      struct-type-property-accessor-procedure?
      (lambda (proc)
        (eq? proc struct-info)))
  redirect-proc : (or/c procedure? #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-struct, but with the following refinements, where self refers to the value to which a orig-proc is originally applied:

Supplying a property accessor for orig-proc enables prop arguments, the same as supplying an accessor, mutator, or structure type.

Changed in version 6.1.1.2 of package base: Changed first argument to an accessor or mutator redirect-proc from v to self.
Changed in version 6.1.1.8: Added optional struct-type argument.

procedure

(chaperone-vector vec    
  ref-proc    
  set-proc    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c vector? chaperone?)
  vec : vector?
  ref-proc : (or/c (vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  set-proc : (or/c (vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-vector, but with support for immutable vectors. The ref-proc procedure must produce the same value or a chaperone of the original value, and set-proc must produce the value that is given or a chaperone of the value. The set-proc will not be used if vec is immutable.

procedure

(chaperone-vector* vec    
  ref-proc    
  set-proc    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c vector? chaperone?)
  vec : (and/c vector? (not/c immutable?))
  ref-proc : (or/c (vector? vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  set-proc : (or/c (vector? vector? exact-nonnegative-integer? any/c . -> . any/c) #f)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like chaperone-vector, but ref-proc and set-proc receive an extra argument as with impersonate-vector*.

Added in version 6.9.0.2 of package base.

procedure

(chaperone-box box    
  unbox-proc    
  set-proc    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c box? chaperone?)
  box : box?
  unbox-proc : (box? any/c . -> . any/c)
  set-proc : (box? any/c . -> . any/c)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-box, but with support for immutable boxes. The unbox-proc procedure must produce the same value or a chaperone of the original value, and set-proc must produce the same value or a chaperone of the value that it is given. The set-proc will not be used if box is immutable.

procedure

(chaperone-hash hash    
  ref-proc    
  set-proc    
  remove-proc    
  key-proc    
  [clear-proc    
  equal-key-proc]    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c hash? chaperone?)
  hash : hash?
  ref-proc : 
(hash? any/c . -> . (values
                     any/c
                     (hash? any/c any/c . -> . any/c)))
  set-proc : (hash? any/c any/c . -> . (values any/c any/c))
  remove-proc : (hash? any/c . -> . any/c)
  key-proc : (hash? any/c . -> . any/c)
  clear-proc : (or/c #f (hash? . -> . any)) = #f
  equal-key-proc : (or/c #f (hash? any/c . -> . any/c)) = #f
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-hash, but with constraints on the given functions and support for immutable hashes. The ref-proc procedure must return a found value or a chaperone of the value. The set-proc procedure must produce two values: the key that it is given or a chaperone of the key and the value that it is given or a chaperone of the value. The remove-proc, key-proc, and equal-key-proc procedures must produce the given key or a chaperone of the key.

Changed in version 6.3.0.11 of package base: Added the equal-key-proc argument.

procedure

(chaperone-struct-type struct-type 
  struct-info-proc 
  make-constructor-proc 
  guard-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c struct-type? chaperone?)
  struct-type : struct-type?
  struct-info-proc : procedure?
  make-constructor-proc : (procedure? . -> . procedure?)
  guard-proc : procedure?
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns a chaperoned value like struct-type, but with struct-type-info and struct-type-make-constructor operations on the chaperoned structure type redirected. In addition, when a new structure type is created as a subtype of the chaperoned structure type, guard-proc is interposed as an extra guard on creation of instances of the subtype.

The struct-info-proc must accept 8 arguments—the result of struct-type-info on struct-type. It must return 8 values, where each is the same or a chaperone of the corresponding argument. The 8 values are used as the results of struct-type-info for the chaperoned structure type.

The make-constructor-proc must accept a single procedure argument, which is a constructor produced by struct-type-make-constructor on struct-type. It must return the same or a chaperone of the procedure, which is used as the result of struct-type-make-constructor on the chaperoned structure type.

The guard-proc is like a guard argument to make-struct-type: it must accept one more argument than a constructor for struct-type, where the last argument is the name the name of the instantiated structure type. It must return the number of values needed by the constructor (i.e. one value for each argument but the last), and each returned value must be the same as or a chaperone of the corresponding argument. The guard-proc is added as a constructor guard when a subtype is created of the chaperoned structure type.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to chaperone-struct-type must be even) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of struct-type.

procedure

(chaperone-evt evt proc prop prop-val ... ...)

  (and/c evt? chaperone?)
  evt : evt?
  proc : (evt? . -> . (values evt? (any/c . -> . any/c)))
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Returns a chaperoned value like evt, but with proc as an event generator when the result is synchronized with functions like sync.

The proc generator is called on synchronization, much like the procedure passed to guard-evt, except that proc is given evt. The proc must return two values: a synchronizable event that is a chaperone of evt, and a procedure that is used to check the event’s result if it is chosen in a selection. The latter procedure accepts the result of evt, and it must return a chaperone of that value.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to chaperone-evt must be even) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of evt.

The result is chaperone-of? the argument evt. However, if evt is a thread, semaphore, input port, output port, or will executor, the result is not recognized as such. For example, thread? applied to the result of chaperone-evt will always produce #f.

procedure

(chaperone-channel channel    
  get-proc    
  put-proc    
  prop    
  prop-val ...    
  ...)  (and/c channel? chaperone?)
  channel : channel?
  get-proc : (channel? . -> . (values channel? (any/c . -> . any/c)))
  put-proc : (channel? any/c . -> . any/c)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-channel, but with restrictions on the get-proc and put-proc procedures.

The get-proc must return two values: a channel that is a chaperone of channel, and a procedure that is used to check the channel’s contents. The latter procedure must return the original value or a chaperone of that value.

The put-proc must produce a replacement value that is either the original value communicated on the channel or a chaperone of that value.

Pairs of prop and prop-val (the number of arguments to chaperone-channel must be odd) add impersonator properties or override impersonator-property values of channel.

procedure

(chaperone-prompt-tag prompt-tag 
  handle-proc 
  abort-proc 
  [cc-guard-proc 
  callcc-chaperone-proc] 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c continuation-prompt-tag? chaperone?)
  prompt-tag : continuation-prompt-tag?
  handle-proc : procedure?
  abort-proc : procedure?
  cc-guard-proc : procedure? = values
  callcc-chaperone-proc : (procedure? . -> . procedure?)
   = (lambda (p) p)
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-prompt-tag, but produces a chaperoned value. The handle-proc procedure must produce the same values or chaperones of the original values, abort-proc must produce the same values or chaperones of the values that it is given, and cc-guard-proc must produce the same values or chaperones of the original result values, and callcc-chaperone-proc must produce a procedure that is a chaperone or the same as the given procedure.

Examples:
> (define bad-chaperone
    (chaperone-prompt-tag
     (make-continuation-prompt-tag)
     (lambda (n) (* n 2))
     (lambda (n) (+ n 1))))
> (call-with-continuation-prompt
    (lambda ()
      (abort-current-continuation bad-chaperone 5))
    bad-chaperone
    (lambda (n) n))

abort-current-continuation: non-chaperone result; received a

prompt-abort argument that is not a chaperone of the

original prompt-abort argument

  original: 5

  received: 6

> (define good-chaperone
    (chaperone-prompt-tag
     (make-continuation-prompt-tag)
     (lambda (n) (if (even? n) n (error "not even")))
     (lambda (n) (if (even? n) n (error "not even")))))
> (call-with-continuation-prompt
    (lambda ()
      (abort-current-continuation good-chaperone 2))
    good-chaperone
    (lambda (n) n))

2

procedure

(chaperone-continuation-mark-key key 
  get-proc 
  set-proc 
  prop 
  prop-val ... 
  ...) 
  (and/c continuation-mark-key? chaperone?)
  key : continuation-mark-key?
  get-proc : procedure?
  set-proc : procedure?
  prop : impersonator-property?
  prop-val : any/c
Like impersonate-continuation-mark-key, but produces a chaperoned value. The get-proc procedure must produce the same value or a chaperone of the original value, and set-proc must produce the same value or a chaperone of the value that it is given.

Examples:
> (define bad-chaperone
    (chaperone-continuation-mark-key
     (make-continuation-mark-key)
     (lambda (l) (map char-upcase l))
     string->list))
> (with-continuation-mark bad-chaperone "timballo"
    (continuation-mark-set-first
     (current-continuation-marks)
     bad-chaperone))

with-continuation-mark: non-chaperone result; received a

value that is not a chaperone of the original value

  original: "timballo"

  received: '(#\t #\i #\m #\b #\a #\l #\l #\o)

> (define (checker s)
    (if (> (string-length s) 5)
        s
        (error "expected string of length at least 5")))
> (define good-chaperone
    (chaperone-continuation-mark-key
     (make-continuation-mark-key)
     checker
     checker))
> (with-continuation-mark good-chaperone "zabaione"
    (continuation-mark-set-first
     (current-continuation-marks)
     good-chaperone))

"zabaione"

14.5.3 Impersonator Properties🔗

Creates a new impersonator property and returns three values:

procedure

(impersonator-property? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t if v is a impersonator property descriptor value, #f otherwise.

Returns #t if v is an accessor procedure produced by make-impersonator-property, #f otherwise.